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Soviet Crisis

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NEWS
August 25, 1991
At dawn last Monday, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev's trusted advisers tried to topple him because they feared he was embarking on a course that would destroy the centralized power of the Communist Party.Within 63 hours, the coup was undone by demonstrations from simple, unarmed Russians who would stand for no more tyranny. Led by Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin, they stood their ground against tanks and soldiers.By the end of the week, Mr. Gorbachev was restored to his post but it was Mr. Yeltsin who had won the day as the Communist Party's 73-year hold on power was being dismantled.
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NEWS
By Bill Keller and Bill Keller,New York Times News Service | September 23, 1991
YEREVAN, U.S.S.R. -- Armenia has agreed to renounce any claim to a territory at the heart of its dispute with neighboring Azerbaijan and to enter formal negotiations on the issue today in an attempt to end the Soviet Union's bloodiest and longest-running civil conflict, officials said here yesterday.The apparent breakthrough came as Armenia prepared to declare its independence formally from the Soviet Union. Officials announced last night that more than 94 percent of the voters supported independence in a referendum Saturday, which was certain to be ratified by the Parliament today.
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NEWS
By Roberto Suro and Roberto Suro,New York Times News Service | August 23, 1991
HOUSTON -- In the hearts of many Americans, the Cold War finally ended this week.Attitudes toward the Soviet Union have been slowly changing since Mikhail S. Gorbachev came to power in 1985, but scores of interviews around the country during and after the coup revealed a wave of admiration, even affection, for a nation that had been an object of suspicion, even hatred, not long ago.More than at any time since World War II, Americans are describing the...
NEWS
By Karen Hosler and Karen Hosler,Washington Bureau of The Sun | September 12, 1991
WASHINGTON -- President Bush declared yesterday that the United States has a responsibility to nurture the young democracies of the newly independent Baltic nations and pledged to start the process by normalizing trade relations and creating a Peace Corps for the Baltics.At a White House tribute to the Baltic diplomats here who kept alive the symbols of their countries' sovereignty despite a 51-year occupation by the Soviet Union, Mr. Bush also promised to work for the quick release of $61 million in gold reservesheld for safekeeping in the United States after Soviet annexation of the Baltics in 1940.
BUSINESS
By Ted Shelsby | August 21, 1991
While the military coup in the Soviet Union has given the stock market as a whole a real case of the jitters, it has pumped new life into defense-sector stocks that had already earned good conduct medals during the Persian Gulf war.Paul H. Nisbet, defense analyst with Prudential-Bache Securities, noted yesterday that makers of military equipment have seen the prices of their stocks double since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and are now benefiting from the...
NEWS
By Peter Osterlund and Peter Osterlund,Washington Bureau of The Sun | August 21, 1991
WASHINGTON -- If all had gone according to schedule, Democrats would be roasting President Bush right about now for his decision notto implement their bill to extend unemployment benefits.That, at least, was the plan Saturday, when Mr. Bush formally quashed the Democrats' $5.2 billion measure, refusing to declare the economic emergency required for the money to be spent.But the next day, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev was deposed. Ever since, Washington's eyes have been focused on matters Soviet, noton a pre-election year controversy over unemployment compensation.
NEWS
By Gilbert A. Lewthwaite and Gilbert A. Lewthwaite,Washington Bureau of The Sun | August 28, 1991
WASHINGTON -- Behind President Bush's caution in dealing with the rapidly shifting Soviet crisis lies a series of dangers and dilemmas involving security, territory and personalities, according to administration officials and regional experts.Question marks range from continuing confidence in Soviet nuclear safeguards to protection of ethnic minorities in a country where central control is fast giving way to local autonomy.Uncertainty pervades U.S. policy as events outpace analysis daily, making rapid realignment of the U.S. approach difficult.
NEWS
By Los Angeles Times | August 22, 1991
MOSCOW -- Although their comments were brief, lacked detail and were aimed to reassure, both President Bush and Soviet Foreign Minister Alexander A. Bessmertnykh sought yesterday to address one of the most worrisome global issues in times of turmoil for a superpower: During the Soviet coup, who controlled the nation's nuclear arms?Those strategic Soviet forces "were under control of the competent bodies, and the structure of military command was not changed or modified in any way," Mr. Bessmertnykh said.
NEWS
By Frank Starr and Frank Starr,Chief of The Sun's Washington Bureau | September 9, 1991
WASHINGTON -- Expressing an urgent need for economic aid, the new Soviet foreign minister, Boris Pankin, said yesterday that it was his country's goal to "emerge as a peaceful and friendly ally of the United States and of the rest of the world."Citing instructions from President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and the just-dissolved Congress of People's Deputies, Mr. Pankin said the Soviet Union would remain "loyal to its international commitments and treaties," including prompt withdrawal of troops remaining in Germany and Poland.
NEWS
August 26, 1991
THE SOVIET CRISIS
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | September 12, 1991
MOSCOW -- Amid dire economic news and reports of squabbling over reform plans, the man in charge of the transitional Soviet government said yesterday that he intends to resign.Russian Federation Prime Minister Ivan S. Silayev, who chairs the temporary Soviet Economic Management Committee formed after last month's failed coup, said he will step down from his post Monday, the news agency Tass reported.He gave no explanation. But there has reportedly been little accord in the committee, which has the awesome task of simultaneously reforming the centrally planned economy and overseeing new economic relations between republics that are becoming independent.
NEWS
By RANDOLPH RYAN | September 11, 1991
Boston -- Arabs are not the only ones to experience whiplash because of events in the Soviet Union. But the Arab reaction, not only among most Palestinians but also among intellectuals in much of the Arab world, received special notice. In the early hours after the coup, there were many displays of jubilation about an event that much of the world received with alarm.Was that reaction mere perversity? Interviews in Cairo, Amman and Jerusalem, both with Egyptian intellectuals and Palestinian leaders -- including several involved in negotiations toward a peace conference -- suggest it was a bit more complicated.
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | September 11, 1991
MOSCOW -- In the latest ironic turn in Soviet politics, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev urged the West yesterday to intervene in what the Kremlin zealously guarded for decades as "Soviet internal affairs."He said at the first major international human rights conference in this country that it was in Western Europe's interest to prevent violations of minorities' rights in the former Soviet republics as they assert their sovereignty or independence."If Europe doesn't want to be faced with a flood of refugees, armed conflicts, interethnic hatred . . . it should pay close attention to the observation of minority rights in all states across the continent," he told the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
NEWS
By Frank Starr and Frank Starr,Chief of The Sun's Washington Bureau | September 9, 1991
WASHINGTON -- Expressing an urgent need for economic aid, the new Soviet foreign minister, Boris Pankin, said yesterday that it was his country's goal to "emerge as a peaceful and friendly ally of the United States and of the rest of the world."Citing instructions from President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and the just-dissolved Congress of People's Deputies, Mr. Pankin said the Soviet Union would remain "loyal to its international commitments and treaties," including prompt withdrawal of troops remaining in Germany and Poland.
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | September 9, 1991
MOSCOW -- On a chilly weekend day in a quiet park near the Moscow River, children climb up to sit on the bronze lap of Mikhail Kalinin, play hide-and-seek around the giant legs of Yakov Sverdlov, balance on the head of Felix Dzerzhinsky and chase each other along the prone, granite body of V. I. Lenin.Their parents snap pictures, argue about the identity of the bald, white-marble bust with the nose missing, and wonder aloud at changing times.Here, for now, Moscow authorities aredumping the statues of Bolshevik leaders toppled in the triumphant celebrations that followed the ignominious defeat of the August coup.
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | September 7, 1991
MOSCOW -- A half-century of often brutal rule from Moscow came to an end yesterday when what remains of the Soviet Union followed the example of some 50 other countries and officially recognized the independence of the three Baltic republics.The just-created State Council took only 30 minutes of its first meeting in the Kremlin to acknowledge the restored statehood of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the latest fruit of the accelerated political change following last month's failed Soviet coup.
NEWS
By ARNOLD R. ISAACS | August 24, 1991
Once again, a major international news story has brought forthgreat billows of a dubious new form of broadcast news coverage -- what might be called Future Tense Journalism or, in a common variant, Conditional Tense Journalism.Avoiding the hard work of trying to report and explain what has happened, Future Tense Journalism, as we saw and heard it during the Soviet crisis, seeks out ''experts'' viewing the scene from afar (this being August, often from such spots as the Maine coast or the Colorado mountains)
NEWS
August 30, 1991
British Prime Minister John Major's conversation with President Bush yesterday placed Western priorities on aiding the Soviet Union squarely where they belong -- on providing emergency food supplies to get a worried population through the coming winter.The situation is close to terrifying. Arkady Volsky, one of the four reformers placed in charge of the post-coup Soviet economy, has estimated that state farms have produced only 25 million metric tons of grain for large cities, less than a third of the 85 million tons needed.
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | September 7, 1991
MOSCOW -- With his ideology and empire already in ruins, Vladimir I. Lenin's name was stripped yesterday from Russia's second-largest city, and Leningrad once again became St. Petersburg.A vote of the presidium of the Russian Federation's parliament affirmed the preference of 54 percent of the city's residents for the original name, expressed in a referendum June 12, Tass reported.The precise legal status of the name remains somewhat debatable, since some officials insist that only the Russian Congress of People's Deputies, the full republican parliament, has the right to make the change.
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | September 6, 1991
MOSCOW -- After a tongue-lashing from President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, the Soviet Union's highest legislative body grudgingly handed its powers over to the republics yesterday, accepting the old empire's demise while laying in its ruins the foundation for a new, far-looser union of sovereign states.The necessary two-thirds vote of the Congress of People's Deputies came only after Mr. Gorbachev made it clear that the republics in any case were in a position to seize the central parliament's power with or without its OK."
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