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By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | March 6, 1991
TBILISI, U.S.S.R. -- "Georgia is a nation of warriors," said Merab Gelashvili, and half a dozen would-be warriors gathered in the republican parliament building chimed in with their assent.But these young men would be warriors for Georgia, only Georgia. They will not, they say, serve the Soviet empire that sprawls to the north, west and east from this little, ancient, spectacular, troubled republic."I categorically refuse to serve in the occupying army," said Mr. Gelashvili, 18, a history student at Tbilisi State University.
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By Adam Lisberg and Adam Lisberg,KNIGHT RIDDER/TRIBUNE | May 9, 2002
BERGEN COUNTY, N.J. - They fought for a nation that no longer exists, a nation that turned its back on their sacrifices. As young men, they paid a horrible price to save their country and their people; as old men, they fled that country carrying suitcases and memories. Had they stayed in Russia they would at least have Victory Day - May 9, the day the Russians celebrate to mark the end of World War II in Europe - when old men parade through the streets in their uniforms, chests puffed with pride and festooned with medals.
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NEWS
By Celestine Bohlen and Celestine Bohlen,New York Times News Service The Los Angeles Times contributed to this article | August 21, 1991
MOSCOW -- Inside the War Room on the third floor of the Russian parliament building, commanders of the republic's forces spent the afternoon yesterday poring over maps of Moscow and a floor plan of the 12-floor building, plotting how to stave off an anticipated attack by Soviet army and Interior Ministry troops.Their attire told the story of Russia's patchwork defense. Two men wore Soviet army uniforms, another the World War I uniform of the Don Cossacks. Others, with pistols at their hips, were in camouflage suits, issued by a security firm called the Bells.
NEWS
By Kathy Lally and Kathy Lally,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | January 15, 1995
MOSCOW -- The military debacle in Chechnya has forced Russians to the devastating conclusion that their army is in serious disarray, undisciplined, poorly trained and ill-equipped.The army's ignominious performance has exposed Russia's ultimate military secret, experienced officers and others say: A decay that set in more than 30 years ago has severely debilitated the nation's defenses."The army has disintegrated," said Yuri I. Deryugin, a retired colonel and military sociologist. "The army that won World War II, that strong army, only existed until 1957.
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | January 16, 1991
MOSCOW -- President Mikhail S. Gorbachev moved to ease Western fears for the future of the Soviet Union's foreign policy yesterday by naming liberal Americanologist Alexander Bessmertnykh as foreign minister.At the same time he continued his intermittent war against Boris N. Yeltsin by condemning the Russian Federation leader for proposing the creation of a Russian army, separate from the Soviet army."I think it's a gross violation of the constitution of the U.S.S.R. -- just the very fact of the proposal," an angry Mr. Gorbachev told the Soviet parliament.
NEWS
By Los Angeles Times | January 5, 1992
MOSCOW -- In a new sign of the rapid fragmentation of the Soviet army, acting Commander in Chief Yevgeny I. Shaposhnikov disclosed yesterday that only five of the 11 members of the new Commonwealth of Independent States want to join in a unified armed forces.The remaining six, he said, want their own conventional armies, VTC although all are agreed that nuclear forces should remain under unified command.Mr. Shaposhnikov appealed for a two-year transition period to allow the 3.7-million-member Soviet army, the world's largest, to regroup "without losses, tears and blood."
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | November 28, 1990
MOSCOW -- President Mikhail S. Gorbachev has begun an aggressive, high-stakes campaign to persuade or bludgeon all 15 republics into signing the union treaty he has proposed in an attempt to prevent the disintegration of the Soviet Union.Working simultaneously through the Communist Party, the army and the media, he is concentrating his efforts on the giant Russian Federation, where political rival Boris N. Yeltsin appears in no hurry to sign the treaty, and the Baltic republics, which have flatly refused to sign the treaty.
NEWS
By Los Angeles Times | February 23, 1992
MOSCOW -- Azerbaijan accused Armenia yesterday of launching a surprise invasion of its territory with the aid of units of the former Soviet army, only two days after a call for an immediate cease-fire, but officials in Armenia and Moscow flatly denied the accusation.President Ayaz Mutalibov and other Azerbaijani leaders, meeting in emergency session in Baku, said the "direct aggression" had pushed relations between the Transcaucasian neighbors to their most dangerous point in two years.The accusation spotlighted the uncertain future of what had been the world's largest standing military force -- the 3.7 million-member Soviet army -- as it speeds toward what the commander believes will be its inevitable breakup into separate national forces.
NEWS
By Susan Schoenberger | February 2, 1991
They had braced themselves for the worst, but the 100 Lithuanian-Americans who gathered last night in East Baltimore still shrank in horror at a visual record of the Jan. 13 Soviet troop assault on the Lithuanian capital of Vilnius.The videotape, which was smuggled into the United States, depicted Soviet troops bashing the heads of peaceful protesters with rifle butts, and tanks swarming into a crowd of unarmed Lithuanians protecting a radio-television tower on the night of Jan. 12. Early on Jan. 13, a day now called Bloody Sunday, 14 of the protesters were crushed by tanks or shot to death.
NEWS
By Kathy Lally and Kathy Lally,Moscow Bureau | March 31, 1992
SARATOV, Russia -- Two million Russian-Germans, prisoners of time and history, are struggling to wrest a future for themselves in this newly emerging country.They are emblematic of the scores of nationalities nervously trying to define and protect themselves as the old Soviet shackles fall off, only to be replaced in many cases by fear, jealousy and ethnic animosity.Throughout the fallen empire, people once ordered to march forward as "Soviets" are now stepping apart, proudly calling themselves Tatars, Chechens, Cossacks, Meskhetians, Tuvinians and Buryats.
NEWS
By Kathy Lally and Kathy Lally,Moscow Bureau | March 31, 1992
SARATOV, Russia -- Two million Russian-Germans, prisoners of time and history, are struggling to wrest a future for themselves in this newly emerging country.They are emblematic of the scores of nationalities nervously trying to define and protect themselves as the old Soviet shackles fall off, only to be replaced in many cases by fear, jealousy and ethnic animosity.Throughout the fallen empire, people once ordered to march forward as "Soviets" are now stepping apart, proudly calling themselves Tatars, Chechens, Cossacks, Meskhetians, Tuvinians and Buryats.
NEWS
By Los Angeles Times | February 23, 1992
MOSCOW -- Azerbaijan accused Armenia yesterday of launching a surprise invasion of its territory with the aid of units of the former Soviet army, only two days after a call for an immediate cease-fire, but officials in Armenia and Moscow flatly denied the accusation.President Ayaz Mutalibov and other Azerbaijani leaders, meeting in emergency session in Baku, said the "direct aggression" had pushed relations between the Transcaucasian neighbors to their most dangerous point in two years.The accusation spotlighted the uncertain future of what had been the world's largest standing military force -- the 3.7 million-member Soviet army -- as it speeds toward what the commander believes will be its inevitable breakup into separate national forces.
NEWS
By Los Angeles Times | January 5, 1992
MOSCOW -- In a new sign of the rapid fragmentation of the Soviet army, acting Commander in Chief Yevgeny I. Shaposhnikov disclosed yesterday that only five of the 11 members of the new Commonwealth of Independent States want to join in a unified armed forces.The remaining six, he said, want their own conventional armies, VTC although all are agreed that nuclear forces should remain under unified command.Mr. Shaposhnikov appealed for a two-year transition period to allow the 3.7-million-member Soviet army, the world's largest, to regroup "without losses, tears and blood."
NEWS
By Ian Johnson and Ian Johnson,Special to The Sun | December 13, 1991
BERLIN -- The fate of 1.2 million missing German soldiers from World War II is finally being cleared up, thanks to improved East-West relations.More than 40 years after the war ended, Soviet reformers have broken the information block they had previously enforced, said Urs Veit, head of the German Armed Services Information Office."
NEWS
By Will Englund and Will Englund,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | December 11, 1991
MOSCOW -- The squad trudged in formation in the afternoon darkness yesterday alongside Moscow's Marshal Zhukov Prospekt.It was a familiar sight here. They were hard, laconic young men from Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tadzhikistan and Russia, draftees, 10 cogs in the one great institution that still transcends republic borders: the Soviet army.The army hasn't been heard from since Russia, Ukraine and Byelarus declared a new commonwealth Sunday to replace the Soviet Union.Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev asserted himself in his role as commander in chief yesterday, meeting with top officers at the Defense Ministry.
NEWS
By GARRY WILLS | August 22, 1991
Chicago -- The incredible courage of people standing up to tanks was the most moving part of the story coming to us from Moscow and Leningrad, as it was the most moving aspect of the Tiananmen Square story from China last year. But the Chinese brutally restored order, and the Russian coup leaders could not.The difference is that the Russian events are part of an ongoing revolution. The Chinese had no plans such as the treaty among the Soviet republics that provoked the Soviet army to act. The reactionaries thought they could build on the unpopularity of Mikhail S. Gorbachev caused by economic conditions, in order to sabotage his treaty loosening the union.
NEWS
By Will Englund and Will Englund,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | December 11, 1991
MOSCOW -- The squad trudged in formation in the afternoon darkness yesterday alongside Moscow's Marshal Zhukov Prospekt.It was a familiar sight here. They were hard, laconic young men from Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tadzhikistan and Russia, draftees, 10 cogs in the one great institution that still transcends republic borders: the Soviet army.The army hasn't been heard from since Russia, Ukraine and Byelarus declared a new commonwealth Sunday to replace the Soviet Union.Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev asserted himself in his role as commander in chief yesterday, meeting with top officers at the Defense Ministry.
NEWS
By Scott Shane and Scott Shane,Moscow Bureau of The Sun | January 30, 1991
MOSCOW -- Ignoring a chorus of protests against plans for military patrols in Soviet cities, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev personally reaffirmed yesterday the order of his ministers of defense and internal affairs to begin such patrols Friday.By invoking his sweeping powers and issuing a presidential decree establishing the patrols, Mr. Gorbachev sent a clear political message: The new, hard-line policy of the Soviet leadership is not just that of generals and police officers. It is first and foremost the policy of Mr. Gorbachev himself.
NEWS
By Celestine Bohlen and Celestine Bohlen,New York Times News Service The Los Angeles Times contributed to this article | August 21, 1991
MOSCOW -- Inside the War Room on the third floor of the Russian parliament building, commanders of the republic's forces spent the afternoon yesterday poring over maps of Moscow and a floor plan of the 12-floor building, plotting how to stave off an anticipated attack by Soviet army and Interior Ministry troops.Their attire told the story of Russia's patchwork defense. Two men wore Soviet army uniforms, another the World War I uniform of the Don Cossacks. Others, with pistols at their hips, were in camouflage suits, issued by a security firm called the Bells.
NEWS
By Gilbert A. Lewthwaite and Mark Matthews and Gilbert A. Lewthwaite and Mark Matthews,Washington Bureau of The Sun Peter Osterlund, Karen Hosler and Richard H. P. Sia of The Sun's Washington Bureau contributed to this article | August 20, 1991
WASHINGTON -- Responding in part to a plea from Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin, President Bush refused yesterday to recognize the junta that overthrew Mikhail S. Gorbachev.Mr. Bush called for the ousted leader to be returned to power and signaled his intent to isolate the new Kremlin leadership economically as well as politically."We will avoid in every possible way actions that would lend legitimacy or support to this coup effort," the president said.In a message to the White House, Mr. Yeltsin asked Mr. Bush to support him in resisting the group that overthrew the Soviet president, an administration official said.
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