The Henryton complex, originally built in 1922 as a sanitarium… (Photo by Kim Hairston, Baltimore…)
Perched on a wooded bluff in rural southeastern Carroll County, the old Henryton State Hospital bears silent witness to the ravages of decades of neglect and vandalism. First opened in 1923, the 18-building complex that once housed the sick and handicapped now appears beyond hope of recovery itself.
Windows gape. Trees reach to the sky through roofs that have caved in or burned. Graffiti and vines cover stucco and brick walls. Broken glass and beer cans litter the ground, along with debris from the crumbling structures.
"Things fall apart," reads one of the spray-painted tags, many of them profane, that festoon the walls.
Years after Maryland and most states largely abandoned institutional psychiatric care in favor of community-oriented treatment, some former hospitals remain vacant as officials puzzle over what to do with them.
In Anne Arundel County, a "strategic plan" is being prepared to decide the fate of the 530-acre campus of the old Crownsville Hospital Center, the state's first mental hospital for African-Americans, which operated from 1913 until it closed in 2004. In Baltimore County, talks drag on over selling Stevenson University a chunk of the Rosewood Center campus in Owings Mills, where the developmentally disabled were housed from 1889 until it was shuttered in 2009. A police recruit was wounded in a shooting earlier this year during an unauthorized training exercise at Rosewood.
But the Henryton complex near Marriottsville, closed since 1985, has deteriorated over the years from white elephant to potentially dangerous nuisance. Worried that someone is going to get hurt, local officials have pressed the state to demolish it, and now the end may be near, with a state official vowing to try to start work in May.
There have been more than 70 fires at Henryton over the past decade, according to fire officials, the most recent on March 17 when a wooden cottage burned down. Firefighters from Sykesville were joined in responding to the blaze by others from Baltimore, Carroll and Howard counties.
"We're concerned about anyone possibly being injured on the property, whether it's an intruder or firefighter or EMS personnel," said William E. Barnard, the state fire marshal.
Though the unmarked entrance lane is gated and guarded at times, it's easy to walk in unseen along railroad tracks that parallel the South Branch of the Patapsco River. People from near and far are drawn to the remote 46-acre tract. Some come to check out a forgotten relic, but many are attracted by local and online lore that the place is haunted.
One group of young people, who came to Henryton last week during spring break from high school, said despite the ghost stories, people are drawn to see the artwork others have left behind.
Others apparently come to carouse, to pillage anything of value, or to leave their mark, either with spray paint or matches.
"It is a very beautiful piece of property," said Del. Susan W. Krebs, a Carroll County Republican. "You walk back there off Henryton Road and say, 'Wow! Look what it used to be.'"
But the awe quickly turns to dismay, she said. "Every square inch has been desecrated."
Henryton was built as a sanatorium for African-Americans diagnosed with tuberculosis at a time when health care and many other public facilities were segregated. By the 1950s, nearly 500 adults and children plus staff were housed in the 35-building complex, according to information on file at the Maryland Historical Trust. It was converted in 1962 to a residential facility for the developmentally disabled, and closed nearly three decades ago.
Frank W. Kirkland, developmental disabilities director at the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, said places like Henryton and Rosewood emptied out as health care for what used to be called the "feeble-minded" evolved from institutionalizing them, ostensibly for their own protection, to providing community-based services that would allow them to continue living with their families or in group homes.
"In the past 20-25 years institutional populations have decreased by probably more than two-thirds," Kirkland said. In Maryland, he noted, there are now fewer than 150 beds for housing the developmentally disabled.
The state has not moved as purposefully to recycle or dispose of its old institutions. One that has successfully transitioned is Springfield Hospital Center in Sykesville. Opened in 1896, it housed more than 3,000 patients in overcrowded conditions in the late 1940s. The hospital down-sized in the 1980s, and portions of the complex have been converted to a state police training academy and other uses.