CHICAGO -- When high school freshman Dawn Sherman learned that Illinois had a law requiring public schools to provide a moment of silence each day for "reflection and student prayer," she was outraged.
Not because the law meant lost learning time in her honors math class - which would be 15 seconds shorter - but because "it was clear that we're supposed to sit and pray, or sit and watch other people pray," said Dawn, who is an atheist.
Along with her father, Rob, the Buffalo Grove High School student has filed a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the law, which some Illinois school boards have raced to embrace and others have defied.
"I don't go to school to talk to God," she said. "I'm in school to learn."
The debate reflects a long-standing national fight over school prayer. The U.S. Supreme Court in 1962 ruled that official sponsorship or endorsement of prayer in schools violates the First Amendment. Over time, state lawmakers found that they were allowed to require moments of silence as long as students were not forced or encouraged to pray.
But there were limits: In the mid-1980s, an Alabama mandatory "moment of silence" law was found unconstitutional by the high court because "there was a clear legislative record that they were trying to advocate getting prayer back into schools," said Charles C. Haynes, a senior scholar at the First Amendment Center in Washington.
"Since then, legislators have been far more careful about what they're saying about why such measures are pushed forward," Haynes said.
According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, 12 other states - Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia - also require such moments of quiet in the classroom. In more than 20 other states, teachers are allowed to decide whether they want such a classroom timeout.
U.S. District Judge Robert W. Gettleman in Illinois will hear oral arguments over whether to grant class-action status to the Shermans' case.
In the meantime, Gettleman has ordered Township High School District 214, which oversees Buffalo Grove High, not to have a moment of silence. He also has barred the superintendent of the state school board from enforcing the rule or issuing any directive on how the issue should be handled in other schools.
Critics of such laws argue that they are a first step to threatening the Constitution's separation of church and state.
"We heard a steady stream of complaints, from teachers to parents to students, in the days after the law went into effect," said Colleen Connell, executive director of the ACLU of Illinois.
"We've heard about a principal telling students to remember veterans in their prayers or private reflections," she said. "We've heard that teachers fold their hands and bow their heads, perhaps inadvertently, but sending a message to the kids that they should be praying."
But advocates of the laws say they give educators a tool to focus students' attention and provide children a chance to reflect on either personal issues or the challenges they might face that day.
"It's certainly a student's constitutional right to engage in silent reflection, even if it includes prayer," said David Cortman, senior legal counsel for the nonprofit Alliance Defense Fund, which has filed briefs in the Sherman case. "It's as if the mere mention of the word prayer suddenly taints the law."
In 2002, Illinois lawmakers passed the Silent Reflection and Student Prayer Act, which gave teachers the option to have a moment of silence in their classrooms as long as it was not "conducted as a religious exercise."
The law - which supporters and critics agree is ambiguously worded - did not outline how compliance would be monitored, did not give school districts a way to opt out and did not specify whether they would be penalized for not participating.
As part of an effort to help teachers across Illinois gain control of their classrooms, lawmakers tweaked the measure's wording, state Sen. Kimberly A. Lightford said. It went from saying educators "may" observe a moment of silence to saying they "shall."
"What's the problem? Every single time we meet on the Senate floor, we open up the session with prayer - whether it's given by a rabbi, or a priest, or a Buddhist or a minister," Lightford said.
Gov. Rod R. Blagojevich vetoed the measure, citing constitutionality concerns, but lawmakers overrode him.
When the law went into effect Oct. 11, many Illinois school administrators raced to try to hash out practical issues, such as what amount of time constitutes a "moment." Others chose to ignore the law. In November, after failing to get a waiver from the state, the Evanston-Skokie school board agreed not to force teachers to observe the law.