It's not for sale just yet, but homeowners anxious about rising electricity rates may want to take note: A builder has just put the finishing touches on a new four-bedroom house in Bel Air that should cost less than half as much to heat, cool and turn on the lights as do comparable traditional homes.
At times, the electric meter on the "Greenland" home by Bob Ward Companies even runs backward - supplying power to BGE and earning the future owner a credit on his or her utility bill.
With electricity rates set to increase Saturday and heating oil and natural gas prices already soaring, more Marylanders are starting to look for ways to keep their utility bills manageable.
This Bel Air prototype, a collaboration between the building industry and government, is part of a growing effort to promote more energy efficiency and "green" design in new construction.
"The future is now when it comes to renewable energy," said Frederick G. Davis, director of the Maryland Energy Administration.
Government officials are responding by offering more grants, low-interest loans and tax credits to install or retrofit solar collectors and other energy-saving devices or systems. Baltimore County, for instance, is eyeing a 10-year property tax credit for "high-performance" commercial or office buildings - though nothing just yet for homes.
Homebuilders, meanwhile, are taking a closer look at reducing the energy appetites of their McMansions, anticipating the day when buyers ask for solar hot-water heaters as often as they now opt for granite countertops.
Bob Ward, which builds homes in the Baltimore area and in southern Pennsylvania, constructed the "PowerHouse," as the Bel Air prototype is dubbed, in cooperation with a federal research program aimed at developing "zero energy" homes by 2020.
The PowerHouse looks pretty much like any other Greenland - one of eight home designs offered by Bob Ward Companies, one of the Baltimore area's larger homebuilders. The two-story house has a stone facade and two-car garage - but with flat, black solar panels hugging two sides of the roof. One solar collector heats the home's water, the other generates electricity.
Inside, the energy-saving improvements are mostly hidden but no less significant. The basement is fully insulated, for instance, built of precast concrete and steel packed with foam. There's extra insulation in the attic as well, plus double-paned, high-performance windows.
At certain times, particularly when the air conditioner or furnace aren't needed, the photovoltaic system generates more electricity than the house needs, providing power to BGE's grid serving Bel Air. Under state law, that can earn the owner a credit on the power bill for the costs of the electricity supplied.
Officials with the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, who helped with the home's design, estimate the upgrades should lower utility bills by more than $200 a month. Occupants of a traditionally built Greenland-style home pay $378 a month on average, while the PowerHouse ought to cost $173.
Impressive as the utility savings promise to be, they're not enough to put solar panels on every new home. The upgrades on the Bel Air home added about $50,000 to its cost, said Linda Veach, president of Bob Ward Companies - and that's a price few buyers are willing to shoulder right now. Her firm has been participating in government programs encouraging energy-efficient homes for years.
"People aren't asking for it," said Veach, who's also president of the Home Builders Association of Maryland. "If they ask for granite countertops, that's what we give them. If they ask for energy efficiency, that's what we give them."
Still, Veach said, her company intends to incorporate some of the energy-saving techniques into its standard home designs - enough to lower utility costs 5 percent to 10 percent by eliminating drafts and "cold spots."
Experts in "green" building say builders could be producing energy self-sufficient homes now, if they made more radical design changes.
"What they need to do really is go and look at the orientation and the actual design of the house and use the house more as a solar collector," said Stanley J. Sersen, president of the Green Building Institute in Jessup. Putting most of the windows on the southern side of the house, for instance, would increase warming in winter.
But officials say they're looking for easy-to-adopt energy-saving techniques that don't require major changes in home design or lifestyle.
"A research result that sits on the shelf isn't going to save anyone any energy," said Edward O. Pollock Jr., team leader for residential research at the U.S. Department of Energy.
The Bel Air house, Pollock said, is one of the most energy efficient that has been built under his agency's program. Not counting the photovoltaic system, which cost about $35,000 alone, he said, the utility savings at the demonstration house may be greater than all the other costs incurred.