Deaths Elsewhere

October 11, 2004

Townsend Hoopes,

82, an author and one-time Washington insider who wrote of how President Lyndon B. Johnson tried to de-escalate the Vietnam War in 1968, died Sept. 20 in Baja California, Mexico, from complications of melanoma. He lived in Chestertown, where he was a senior fellow at Washington College.

Mr. Hoopes, a former assistant secretary of defense, was Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara's principal deputy for international security affairs. In that post, he influenced American policies and strategies in Indochina. Later, as undersecretary of the Air Force, he saw the resulting shambles on the ground.

He startled Washington -- and the country -- with his blunt 1969 account The Limits of Intervention, which focused on his impressions in light of the calamitous Vietnamese Tet offensive of 1968.

After his government service, he was a frequent critic of Washington's approach to arms control in the confrontation with the Soviet Union. He also was president of the Association of American Publishers from 1973 to 1986. Other books he wrote include The Devil and John Foster Dulles: The Diplomacy of the Eisenhower Era (Little, Brown, 1973) and Driven Patriot: The Life and Times of James Forrestal (Knopf, 1992), written with Douglas Brinkley.

James Chace,

72, one of the country's leading foreign policy thinkers and historians, whose work altered mainstream thought about American global power, died Friday of a heart attack in Paris, where he was working on a book about the Marquis de Lafayette, the French soldier and statesman who assisted the Americans in the Revolutionary War.

He was the author of nine books, editor of the nation's most influential foreign policy journals, and mentor to scores of younger writers and historians. He is best known for his biography of Dean Acheson, Acheson: The Secretary of State Who Created the American World (1999).

He served as managing editor of East Europe, a political review of Soviet bloc affairs, from 1959 to 1969. He also edited Interplay, a foreign policy journal, from 1967 to 1970 and Foreign Affairs from 1970 to 1983.

After a stint as an editor at The New York Times Book Review, he became the Henry Luce Professor in Freedom of Inquiry and Expression at Bard College in New York in 1990. Two years later he also became editor of World Policy Journal.

Donald W. Douglas Jr.,

87, a former president of Douglas Aircraft Co. who was responsible for the introduction of the DC-8 and DC-9 jetliners, died Oct. 3 in Hemet, Calif.

Named president of the company in 1957, Mr. Douglas, a son of the company's founder, headed the enterprise at the time of the merger with McDonnell Aircraft in 1967, a coupling brought about by financial reversals at Douglas, which had lost much of its market share in the commercial aircraft market to Boeing. Boeing and McDonnell-Douglas would merge 30 years later.

Douglas Aircraft pioneered and refined the design and production of propeller-driven commercial aircraft. During World War II, the company expanded to a peak of 160,000 workers, most of them in Southern California. During the war, Douglas Aircraft produced more than 45,000 commercial and military aircraft.

After the Douglas-McDonnell merger, Mr. Douglas was named senior vice president of the company. He retired in 1974, but remained on the board of directors until 1989.

Andres Nazario Sargen,

88, a Cuban exile who helped lead a group that tried for decades to overthrow Cuban President Fidel Castro died Wednesday in Miami of colon cancer.

During the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista, Mr. Sargen worked with guerrillas operating independently of Mr. Castro's rebel movement. When Mr. Castro came to power Jan. 1, 1959, he and other guerrilla leaders faced execution.

They left for Miami in 1961 and joined other Cuban exiles to form Alpha 66 -- named for its 66 original members. The group is the oldest anti-Castro group in Miami and claims to have staged clandestine operations in Cuba to overthrow the Castro regime. It still advocates an armed civil uprising in Cuba.

Yogi Bhajan,

75, a former customs inspector at the Delhi airport who became an American spiritual leader and a highly successful entrepreneur, died Wednesday at his home in Espanola, N.M., from complications from heart failure.

Yogi Bhajan, whose full name was Harbhajan Singh Khalsa Yogiji, introduced an ancient and arduous form of Indian yoga, Kundalini yoga, to the United States. He also introduced an amended form of Sikhism to this country.

He founded a security company that guards federal courthouses and Army bases and takes in more than $1 billion a year. Also among the businesses he helped create are yoga centers and real estate concerns, as well as his Golden Temple natural foods company, Yogi herbal teas operation and Peace natural cereals.

Edward McAteer,

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