Tennessee limits who is eligible for a driver's license

Legal, illegal immigrants get `certificate for driving'

July 29, 2004|By Ellen Barry | Ellen Barry,LOS ANGELES TIMES

NASHVILLE, Tenn. -- When Jerry Tseng left the Driver License Station recently, he was the possessor of a new, and puzzling, form of identification.

Tennessee's "certificate for driving," which identifies its holder as a non-U.S. citizen, resembles a driver's license in some ways. Printed on it is a photograph of Tseng, a Singaporean citizen studying at Vanderbilt University on a student visa.

But the card is more remarkable for a function it does not perform: Below the state flag are the words "For driving purposes only -- not valid for identification."

The purple card represents Tennessee's effort to solve a problem that has troubled many states. Faced with huge numbers of illegal immigrants driving the nation's highways, legislators have searched for a way to license and insure them -- without granting them a state-issued driver's license.

Tennessee's answer is the certificate for driving, which is being distributed to drivers who are neither U.S. citizens nor permanent legal residents in the United States. Legal immigrants on temporary student and work visas will receive the certificate as will illegal immigrants.

But nearly a month after Tennessee began distributing the new card, few people are cheering the compromise. Advocates for immigrants contend that the certificates mark its holders as inferior in the eyes of the state; anti-immigration lawmakers have the opposite view -- that the cards give illegal immigrants legitimacy they should not have.

Card prompts confusion

With about 1,200 of the cards issued, many Tennesseans are confused: Will the card be of use when cashing a check, or renting a video, or renting a car? When a police officer pulls a driver over and is shown the driving certificate, can he arrest the holder for failing to show a proper ID? If the card is not identification, what is it?

"This is a disaster, potentially," said Tyler Moran, an analyst with the National Immigration Law Center, which advocates for the rights of immigrants. "I really think it's created a bit of a mess."

For once, Moran is in agreement with state Rep. Donna Rowland, a conservative Republican from Rutherford County. Rowland said she would "absolutely not" advise other states to follow Tennessee's lead.

"I hope states learn from our mistakes," she said. "The certificate of driving will become exactly what the driver's license has become, which is a de facto national ID."

Tennessee had been issuing driver's licenses to illegal immigrants for two years when Gov. Phil Bredesen took office. Bredesen concluded that the practice was a threat to homeland security and determined to end it. In today's America, a driver's license is "kind of like a passport," allowing its holder to buy guns, board airplanes and open bank accounts, said Bob Corney, Bredesen's communications director.

Not wanting to strip licenses from immigrants who currently hold them, the governor approved a second tier of state licensing, creating the certificate. Bredesen, who considers the new law the strictest in the country, knew he risked displeasing many factions in the immigration debate, Corney said.

Both sides unhappy

In a compromise such as this one, he added, "You've struck a good balance when no one on either side is completely happy."

Nashville's economy has boomed over the past decade, and with new construction came immigrant laborers. In the 1990s, the foreign-born population of Tennessee grew by 169 percent, giving it the sixth highest growth rate in the country, according to the Urban Institute.

The availability of driver's licenses was itself a draw, and 30,000 applicants surged through driver license stations the first two months after the state dropped the requirement of a Social Security number in 2001, said Wanda Adams, assistant director of driver's license services at the Tennessee Department of Safety.

Now, the department's clerks must determine whether the applicant is a U.S. citizen or permanent legal resident, Adams said. If the answer is no, applicants who pass the driver's test will only be eligible for a certificate of driving.

Tennessee's experiment is being scrutinized by numerous states trying to balance road safety against federal immigration policy and homeland security. Chief among them is California. After rejecting proposals for years, former Gov. Gray Davis in 2003 signed a bill that would have allowed undocumented immigrants to receive California licenses. It became an issue in the election last year to recall the governor. After Arnold Schwarzenegger defeated Davis, he then lobbied the Legislature to repeal the bill.

This year, lawmakers in 25 states considered 49 bills that would loosen or tighten the requirements for driver's licenses, although nearly all died in committee, according to the National Immigration Law Center. Ten states issue licenses to undocumented immigrants.

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