Companies that are thriving still hesitant to add workers

Some are still smarting over pain of layoffs

November 23, 2003|By LOS ANGELES TIMES

The economy roared last quarter, and so did Falcon Plastics Inc.

A family-owned company in the eastern South Dakota town of Brookings, Falcon posted record sales in September. Yet there's no impulse to celebrate, no rush to hire. The bad times are still too vivid.

"We want to make sure that when we add someone, we won't have to turn around in three months and let them go," Falcon President Jay Bender said.

Multiply Falcon's situation by tens of thousands of other companies, and a picture begins to develop of an economy climbing a wall of worry.

The Labor Department announced that employers added a net 126,000 payroll jobs last month. In all, the economy has added 286,000 positions over the past three months, the best quarter since early 2001.

But 2.4 million additional jobs would be needed to regain all the ground lost since March 2001, when the last recession began. When, or if, those positions will come back is far from clear.

The problem is that many companies like the notion of a jobless recovery. The leaner they can keep their payrolls - by using overtime, automating the production process and outsourcing jobs overseas - the higher their profits.

The murky hiring picture affects not only the 8.8 million unemployed, but also the estimated 1.6 million who want a job but aren't actively looking for work. It affects millions more who want a full-time job but must get by with part-time work. And it weighs on the more than 130 million employed.

"The greatest single concern people appear to have about the economy is jobs," New York investment house Fred Alger Management Inc. said in its November market review. "We have companies and an economy that can shift gears quickly, but not the kind of job creation and job security that people understandably seek."

`Cut off your arm'

For Falcon, as for many companies, the 2001 downturn was swift and harsh. Annual sales tumbled from $20 million to $14 million. The roster of 305 employees shrank to 175. "Sometimes," Bender said, "you have to cut off your arm to save your life."

The emergency surgery was successful. For the fiscal year that will end in April, Falcon is hopeful of hitting sales of $20 million again. But employment is back to only 200 workers. Any further growth, Bender said, "will be incremental. We're still very cautious."

So are consumers. Although the economy expanded during the third quarter at its fastest rate in 19 years, people's confidence in the future remains "middling," noted Richard Curtin, who directs the University of Michigan's monthly consumer survey. The tenuous job situation is a big reason.

"It used to be understood that when business weakened, layoffs went up. When it improved, people were called back to do the same jobs at the same employers," Curtin said. "Now, if people lose their jobs, they have to find new skills and a new job at a new employer. It's a more daunting challenge."

It's one that many stand to face, even as the economy picks up steam. The job placement company Challenger, Gray & Christmas Inc., based in Chicago, reported that planned layoffs at U.S. businesses were 171,874 in October, more than double September's total and the highest in a year.

Duke Energy Co. said it would eliminate 8 percent of its global work force, or 2,000 jobs. Sony Corp. will cut several thousand U.S. jobs as part of a major restructuring. Tyco International Ltd. said it would cut 7,200 jobs, or 3 percent of its labor force.

In some cases, the cuts were accompanied by solid earnings reports. Boise Cascade Corp. said sales increased 9 percent in the third quarter and that profit rose 286 percent. But the wood-products company is continuing layoffs, which have reduced the number of employees by 460 this year and will lop off an additional 90 during the fourth quarter. Boise Cascade had a work force last year of more than 24,000.

Electronic Data Systems Corp. fulfilled Wall Street's expectations for the third quarter, but the Plano, Texas, computer services company nonetheless announced that it would cut an additional 2,500 jobs, its third layoff in a year.

One major company going against the trend is International Business Machines Corp., whose chairman, Samuel J. Palmisano, says he foresees the need next year "for approximately 10,000 new positions in key skill areas." IBM has 315,000 employees, roughly the same number it had when the boom peaked in 2000.

Hiring overseas

But fewer than half of IBM's workers are in the United States, and Palmisano didn't specify where the hiring would take place. Alliance@IBM, a union representing workers at the technology company, said the announcement was a "smoke screen" for the fact that many IBM jobs were being transferred overseas, where they would be filled by Indian or Chinese software engineers.

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