Deaths Elsewhere

Deaths Elsewhere

November 09, 2003

Hugh H. Bownes,

83, a former federal appeals court judge whose rulings in defense of civil liberties often put him at odds with conservative New Englanders, died of pneumonia Wednesday in New Haven, Conn.

Judge Bownes, who was appointed to the federal bench in 1968, is best known for his opinions upholding free speech and individual rights. While on the district court in New Hampshire in 1977, he ruled in response to an inmate's lawsuit that the conditions at the state prison were "deplorable." The ruling led to an overhaul of the prison system.

Earlier, as part of a three-judge panel, he upheld the rights of Jehovah's Witnesses to place tape on their vehicle license plates, blocking the New Hampshire motto "Live Free or Die." He affirmed the right of a University of New Hampshire student to wear a patch protesting the Vietnam War on the seat of his pants and the right of gays at the university to hold a dance.

He was named to the 1st U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in 1977. In 1982 he ruled that a nativity scene in Pawtucket, R.I., which had been displayed for 40 years, was unconstitutional.

Dewan Prem Chand,

87, an Indian general who served for decades as a United Nations peacekeeper in Congo, Cyprus, Namibia and Zimbabwe, died Monday in New Delhi.

U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan praised General Chand, saying he set a standard for generations of U.N. colleagues. "General Chand was a legend among the United Nations peacekeepers," Mr. Annan said in letter to General Chand's family.

General Chand joined the Indian army in 1937 under British rule. After India's independence in 1947, he moved to the Gurkha regiment, known for its fierce fighters. He retired from the army in 1967.

The Indian government appointed him commander of the U.N. forces in Congo in 1962, which marked the start of his career as a U.N. peacekeeper. He retired from the United Nations in 1990. He received a U.N. peace medal and was decorated by the Indian army.

Richard Wollheim,

80, a philosophy professor whose writing on visual art and psychoanalysis made him one of the field's most innovative thinkers, died Tuesday of heart failure at his home in London.

Dr. Wollheim wrote an influential biography of Sigmund Freud, but it was his interest in and ideas about painting that set him apart from fellow philosophers. He set out his views on visual art in Painting as an Art, which was published in 1987, and was credited with coining the term "minimalism."

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