Abdel Rahman Badawi, 85, one of Egypt's most prominent...

July 27, 2002

Abdel Rahman Badawi, 85, one of Egypt's most prominent philosophers, died of cancer Thursday in Cairo.

Mr. Badawi taught at universities in Libya, Kuwait and Iran, but always returned to Paris, where he lived in a hotel.

He spent most of his life researching the influence of Greek philosophy on Islamic scholars, studying works such as 12th-century Islamic philosopher Averroes' commentaries on Aristotle. He wrote more than 70 encyclopedic works, including the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and about 100 translations of the most prominent classics.

Robert Giard, 62, who traveled the country to photograph gay and lesbian literary figures, died July 16. He was traveling by bus from his home in New York to Chicago for a portrait session at the time of his death.

Mr. Giard took nearly 600 black-and-white photographs of gay writers. He posed his subjects, which included Allen Ginsberg, Quentin Crisp and Andrea Dworkin, in simple settings surrounded by things they loved.

Many of his photographs were included in a book, Particular Voices (1997), which was the basis for an exhibit at the New York Public Library.

Richard Liddicoat, 84, creator of the global standard in diamond grading and a leading advocate of gemological education, died in Los Angeles on Tuesday after a long illness.

Until Mr. Liddicoat developed the International Diamond Grading System in 1953, a number of differing methods were used to evaluate gems. His approach became the industry standard with the simplicity and uniformity of judging diamonds by their cut, color, clarity and weight.

The lifetime board chairman and former president of the Carlsbad-based nonprofit Gemological Institute of America wrote a trio of comprehensive books - The Handbook of Gem Identification, The Diamond Dictionary and The Jeweler's Manual.

Mr. Liddicoat edited the professional journal Gems & Gemology from 1952 until his death.

In 1977, the National Museum of Natural History named a newly discovered variety of the stone tourmaline Liddicoatite in his honor.

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