Toni Morrison (1931-) was born Chloe Anthony Wafford in an Ohio steel mill town, the daughter of of black share-croppers who had migrated from the South. She read voraciously as a child, and in 1949 attended Howard University, where she later taught English. She began writing, after the breakup of her marriage, which resulted in her first book, "The Bluest Eye," in 1970. She eventually moved herself and her two sons to New York, where she wrote fiction and became a senior editor at Random House. There she helped further the careers of other black female writers. She was the first black woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize for literature (1993). In 1988 she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Morrison has been hailed for her courage of subject matter and use of lyrical language.