WASHINGTON -- With the Watergate scandal still hanging in the air, Stephen J. Solarz, Thomas J. Downey and a slew of freshman Democrats came to Congress 17 years ago to clean it up and turn it inside out.
Now these one-time young reformers are senior members of the House, and many of them are finding that their careers are caught up in a new scandal of their own, the House bank affair.
The story of the 26 remaining members of the freshman Class of1974 demonstrates that the institution can swallow up even the most reform-minded members.
Their energy and votes helped rework the decaying seniority and committee systems and end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. But their primary interests were issues, so they stopped short of rearranging an antiquated internal-administration system, or cutting the perquisites that U.S. citizens eventually found so objectionable.
"Who thought about the bank?" asked Mr. Solarz, the Brooklyn Democrat who wrote 743 overdrafts and overdrew his account beyond his next month's salary 30 out of 39 months audited. The long-standing policy, members say, was not to overdraw the accounts by more than their next month's salary.
"We were interested in reforming the institution to make public policy," Mr. Solarz said. "The only thing we thought about the House restaurant was the lousy food."
At the same time, these members had another, perhaps less noble goal: modernizing electoral politics. They helped introduce political action committees and expanded the use of the franking privilege to blanket mailings.
In the end, these steps helped contribute to a veneer of slickness that eventually alienated many constituents and helped turn the House bank affair into a scandal far larger than it might otherwise have seemed.
Several members of the class now say their experience should serve as a valuable reminder to the 100 or more freshmen expected to take office next year, in part because of the current scandals and in part because of reapportionment. They also are running against the institution in which they wish to serve.
"All reform movements end up as a struggle for power," said Rep. Henry J. Hyde, Republican of Illinois, one of the 92 original members of the group elected in 1974. "The purity of motive somehow becomes diminished as the arena loads up with carcasses."
Many of them suckled on the civil rights and anti-war movements of the 1960s, these graying men and women now hold some of the most important posts in Congress. Not surprisingly, they have become more conservative over the years.
They also had some of the worst records at the now-defunct House bank.
Rep. William F. Goodling, a Pennsylvania Republican, as well as three Democrats, Mr. Solarz, Harold E. Ford of Tennessee and Joseph D. Early of Massachusetts, were included on the list of the 22 worst "check abusers" released by the ethics committee.
Twenty-one of the 26 members of the class who are currently serving in the House overdrew their accounts at least once, including Henry A. Waxman, D-Calif., chairman of an Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health and Environment, 434 times; Carroll Hubbard Jr., D-Ky., chairman of a leading banking subcommittee, 152 times; Mr. Downey, D-N.Y., a powerful member of the Ways and Means Committee, 151 times; Philip R. Sharp, D-Calif., chairman of an Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power, 120 times.
Rep. Les AuCoin, D-Ore., is still believed to have a strong chance to win a Senate seat, but his campaign has bogged down in the bank affair's swampy aftermath. He overdrew his House bank account 83 times.