Carroll M. Williams, 74, a Harvard University biologist who worked out the fundamental principles of how insects develop from eggs through successive larval stages into adults, died of lymphoma Oct. 11 in Watertown, Mass. A pioneer in insect physiology, he discovered the basics of juvenile hormone, a vital molecular signal that prevents an insect from progressing to the next developmental stage too quickly, and he traced the secretion of the hormone to crucial regions in the insect's brain. An analogue of juvenile hormone is now used as a relatively safe means of pest control. He also invented novel techniques for performing insect surgery, chief among them a new type of insect anesthesia.
Charles L. Morris, 82, a pioneer in helicopter flight, died of lung cancer Oct. 12 in Saybrook, Conn. In the 1940s, Mr. Morris helped in the development of several early models as chief test pilot for helicopters at Sikorsky Aircraft in Stratford, Conn. In 1942, he flew one helicopter 761 miles in five days; it might have been a record, but wartime security regulations prohibited official documentation. He appeared on the cover of Life magazine in 1943, taught Charles Lindbergh to fly a helicopter, and demonstrated helicopter flight to Helen Keller by letting a rope attached to the aircraft rise through her hands as she stood on the ground.