Alfonso Garcia Robles, who won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to ban nuclear weapons from Latin America, died yesterday in Mexico City. Mr. Garcia Robles, who suffered from kidney failure, was 80 years old. He was Mexico's foreign minister in 1975 and held numerous diplomatic posts over the past five decades. As president of the Commission for the Denuclearization of Latin America, an international organization founded in 1964, Mr. Garcia Robles was the leading architect of the Tlatelolco Treaty signed three years later banning nuclear weapons from Latin America. His efforts won him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982. He wrote 18 books on international affairs.