* Consists mostly of alcohol abuse. Younger workers are more likely to use marijuana and cocaine, often simultaneously. White-collar workers are more likely to abuse prescription drugs.
* Is becoming more severe now because workers who started drinking in the 1960s are suffering late-stage alcoholism, and because even veteran addicts go downhill rapidly when they start using crack cocaine.
* Costs GM $520 million to $1.5 billion in absenteeism, benefit costs, and extra repairs.
Car quality at GM is "right there with the best in the industry, but it costs us money to make that happen, because if somebody's dysfunctional, we have to do the job twice," said James Heady, an ex-addict who runs the Poletown EAP.
U.S. companies began establishing EAPs to provide counseling and referrals for substance abuse and other personal problems in the 1970s. Today, almost 90 percent of workers in big companies -- those with more than 5,000 employees -- have access to an EAP in their office or factory.
The UAW-GM EAP was founded in 1972 as the first jointly administered labor-management program.
The program handled 11,000 GM workers last year, plus family members.